Published in support of the UK Biodiversity Action Plan for black grouse

Reference Library

This page contains details of research (either published or the subject of doctoral theses) and other information about black grouse. It is not designed to be exhaustive, but to provide details of the most relevant texts on black grouse in Britain and northern Europe. (However, click here for a link to a comprehensive list of black grouse references, last updated in February 2005; or click here for a link to the Grouse Specialist Group's bibliography web page, for a list of more general grouse publications.)


BAINES, D. 1996. Seasonal variation in lek attendance and lekking behaviour by male Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix. Ibis, 138: 177-180.

BAINES, D. & HUDSON. P.J. 1995. The decline of black grouse in Scotland and northern England. Bird Study 42: 122-131

DEL HOYO, J., ELLIOT, A., & SARGATAL, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol 2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. BirdLife/Lynx Edicions.

GIBBONS, D.W., REID, J.W. & CHAPMAN, A. 1993. The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland: 1988-1991. T. & A.D. Poyser, London, UK.

GREGORY, R.D., WILKINSON, N.I., NOBLE, D.G., ROBINSON, J.A., BROWN, A.F., HUGHES, J., PROCTER, D.A., GIBBONS, D.W. & GALBRAITH, C.A. 2002. The population status of birds in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man: an analysis of conservation concern 2002-2007. British Birds 95: 410-450.

HAGEMEIJER, W J M and BLAIR, M J. 1997. The EBCC Atlas of European Birds. T & A D Poyser, London.

HANCOCK, M., BAINES, D., GIBBONS, D., ETHERIDGE, B. & SHEPHERD, M. 1999. Status of male black grouse Tetrao tetrix in Britain in 1995-96. Bird Study 46: 1-15.

HEATH, M., BORGGREVE, C. and PEET, N. 2001. European Bird Populations. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

HUDSON, P.J. & BAINES, D. 1993. Black Grouse. In: The New Atlas of Breeding Birds of Britain and Ireland: 1988-91. Eds: D.W. Gibbons, J.B. Reid, & R.A. Chapman. T. & A.D. Poyser, Calton. 130-131.

LINDLEY, P. JOHNSTONE, I. and THORPE, R. 2003. The status of black grouse Tetrao tetrix in Wales in 2002 and evidence for population recovery. Welsh Birds 3: 318–329.

LUDWIG, G.X. ALATALO, R.V. HELLE, P. LINDEN, H. LINDSROM, J. & SIITARI, H 2006 Short- and long-term population dynamical consequences of asymmetric climate change in black grouse. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273: 2009–2016.

PARSLOW, J L F. 1973. Breeding birds of Britain and Ireland. Berkhamstead, Poyser.

ROBINSON, M. C., BAINES, D., & MATTINGLEY, W. 1993. A survey of black grouse leks in Perthshire. Scottish Birds 17: 20-26.

SHARROCK, J.T.R. 1976. The Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland. Poyser, Berkhamstead.

THOM, V.M. 1986. Birds in Scotland. Poyser, Berkhamstead.

TUCKER, G. M., & HEATH, M. F. 1994. Birds in Europe: their conservation status. BirdLife Conservation Series no.3, Cambridge, UK.



ANGELSTAM, P. 1984. Sexual and seasonal differences in mortality of the black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in Boreal Sweden. Ornis Scand. 15: 123-124.

BAINES, D. 1990. The ecology and conservation of black grouse in Scotland and northern England. In: The Future of Wild Galliformes in the Netherlands. Eds: I.T. Lumeij & Y.R. Hoogeveen. Gegevens Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague. 106-118.

BAINES, D. 1991. Factors contributing to local and regional variation in Black Grouse breeding success in northern Britain. Ornis Scandinavica, 22: 264-269.

BAINES, D. 1994. Seasonal differences in habitat selection by Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix in the Northern Pennines, England. Ibis, 136: 39-43.

BAINES, D. & RICHARDSON, M. 2007. An experimental assessment of the potential effects of human disturbance on Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix in the North Pennines, England. Ibis, 149 Supplement 1: 56-64.

BAINES, D., WILSON, I.A., & BEELEY, G. 1996. Timing of breeding in Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix and Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus and distribution of insect food for the chicks. Ibis, 138: 181-187.

BEESTON, R., BAINES, D., & RICHARDSON, M. 2005. Seasonal and between-sex differences in the diet of Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix. Bird Study, 52: 276-281

BERGMANN, H. H. & KLAUS, S. 1994. Distribution, status and limiting factors of black grouse in central Europe, particularly in Germany, including an evaluation of reintroductions. Gib Faune Sauv 11: 99-124.

BOWKER, G., BOWKER, C. & BAINES, D. 2007. Survival rates and causes of mortality in black grouse Tetrao tetrix at Lake Vyrnwy, North Wales, UK. Wildlife biology 13: 231-237.

BOWKER, G. & BOWKER, C. 2004. Black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) at the STW Lake Vrynwy Estate, North Wales. Final report. STW, Wales (unpublished report).

CAIZERGUES, A. & ELLISON, L. 2002. Natal dispersal and consequences in black grouse. Ibis 144: 478-87.

HAYSOM, S.L. 2001. Aspects of the ecology of black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) in plantation forests in Scotland. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Stirling.

LONEUX, M., LINDSAY, J. & RUWET, J.C. 1997. Influence du climat sur l’evolution de la population de tétras lyre Tetrao tetrix dans les Hautes-Fagne de Belgique de 1967 à 1996. Cahiers d’ Ethologie, 17: 345-386.

MACFARLANE, J. 2002. Habitat associations of black grouse Tetrao tetrix broods in a native pinewood forest. Unpubl. MSc. Thesis.

MIQUET, A. 1990. Mortality in Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix due to elevated cables. Biol Conserv. 54: 349-355.

PICOZZI, N. 1986. Black grouse research in N E Scotland. ITE report to the World Pheasant Association.

PULLIAINEN, E. & TUNKKARI, P.S. 1991. Responses by capercaillie, and willow grouse, to green matter aviolable in early spring. Holarctic Ecology 14, 156-160.

SUMMERS, R.W., GREEN, R.E., PROCTOR, R., DUGAN, D., LAMBIE, D., MONCRIEFF, R., MOSS, R., & BAINES, D. 2004. An experimental study of the effects of predation on the breeding productivity of capercaillie and black grouse. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41: 513-525.

WARREN, P. & BAINES, D. 2002. Dispersal, survival and causes of mortality in black grouse Tetrao tetrix in northern England. Wildlife Biol., 8: 129-135.

WARREN, P. & BAINES, D. 2004. Black Grouse in northern England: stemming the decline. British Birds, 97: 183-189.

WILLEBRAND, T. 1988. Demography and ecology of a black grouse population. PhD Thesis, Univ. of Uppsala.


BAINES, D. 1995. Habitat requirements of Black Grouse. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Grouse. Ed.: D. Jenkins. World Pheasant Association/Istituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica, Ozzana dell'Emilia. 147-150.

BAINES, D. 1996. The implications of grazing and predation management on the habitats and breeding success of black grouse Tetrao tetrix. J. Appl. Ecol. 33: 54-62.

BAINES, D., BLAKE, K. & CALLADINE, J. 2001. Reversing the Decline: a Review of some Black Grouse Conservation Projects in the United Kingdom. Cahiers d’Ethologie. Vol 20. pp 217-234.

BAINES, D. & SUMMERS, R.W. 1997. Assessment of bird collisions with deer fences in Scottish forests. J. Appl. Ecol. 34: 941-948.

BAINES, D., WARREN, P. & CALLADINE, J. 2002. Spatial and temporal differences in the abundance of black grouse and other moorland birds in relation to reductions in sheep grazing. Aspects of Applied Biology, 67.

CALLADINE, J. 2002. Verification of current management prescriptions advocated for black grouse in the UK: a literature review. Report to RSPB.

CALLADINE, J., BAINES, D. & WARREN, P. 2001. Restoration of moorland habitat in northern England: a conservation initiative for black grouse. Cahiers d’Ethologie. Vol 20. pp 521-532.

CALLADINE, J., BAINES, D. & WARREN, P. 2002. Effects of reduced grazing on population density and breeding success of black grouse in northern England. J. Appl. Ecol. 39: 772-780.

CAYFORD, J.T. 1993. Black grouse and forestry: Habitat requirements and management. FC Technical Paper 1, Edinburgh.

COSGROVE, P., & McKNIGHT, A. 2001. The Cairngorms Upland Grain Project. Pilot Study Report.

KLAUS, S. 1991 Effects of forestry on grouse populations; Case studies from the Thuringian and Bohemian forests, central Europe. Ornis Scandinavica, 22: 208-213.

KURKI, S., NIKULA, A., HELLE, P. & LINDÉN, H. 2000. Landscape fragmentation and forest composition effects on grouse breeding success in boreal forests. Ecology, 81: 1985-1997.

MARJAKANGAS, A. & ASPEGREN, H. 1991. Responses of black grouse hens to supplemental winter food. Ornis Scand. 22: 282-283.

MOSS, R., PICOZZI, N., SUMMERS, R.W. & BAINES, D. 2000. Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus in Scotland – demography of a declining population. Ibis 142: 259-267.

PEARCE-HIGGINS, J.W., GRANT, M.C., ROBINSON, M.C. & HAYSOM, S.L. 2007 The role of forest maturation in causing the decline of Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix. Ibis 149: 143-155.

VALKEAJÄRVI & IJÄS 1994. Comparison of breeding success between fed and unfed black grouse in Central Finland. Suomen Riista 40: 98-109.

WARREN, P., BAINES, D., & HENDERSON, C. 2003: Cutting trials to enhance brood rearing habitats for Black Grouse in northern England. Sylvia, Journal of Ornithology 39 (suppl.):81-86.